Anaerobic exercise: muscles burn first glucose, then fat, but when there is not enough oxygen, the liver and muscle reserves are depleted. Energy is quickly used up and lactic acid fatigue occurs (eg: 100 and 200m, jumps) Resistance exercise: Activities that use muscle power to move weights or work against a load that offers resistance (eg: lifting weights).
EXERCISE AND TYPE 2 DIABETES
Type 2 diabetes is essentially characterized by insulin resistance at the level of muscle and liver cells, which causes compensatory hyperinsulinemia (excess insulin in the blood) followed by relative insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia.
Aerobic physical exercise, especially when performed at a moderate intensity and regularly, is a powerful therapeutic tool in the treatment of type 2 diabetes because it causes a decrease in blood sugar levels through an increase in muscle glucose consumption.
On the other hand, resistance exercise is effective in combating muscle loss.
Before starting physical activity of a higher intensity than brisk walking, it is necessary to exclude conditions with a high cardiovascular risk (especially uncontrolled hypertension) and the presence of complications that contraindicate the performance of certain exercises due to the increased risk of developing the disease itself (severe vegetative neuropathy, severe peripheral neuropathy, preproliferative or proliferative retinopathy and macular edema, diabetic foot).
Metabolic effects of exercise
IMPROVED GLYCEMIC CONTROL
IMPROVEMENT OF HYPERTENSION, LIPID PROFILE, WEIGHT LOSS / WEIGHT MAINTENANCE = PREVENTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES
• At least 150 minutes/week of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity (50-70% maximum heart rate) and/or at least 90 minutes/week of vigorous physical exercise (>70% maximum heart rate) is recommended.
• It is advisable to intensify self-monitoring of blood glucose before, possibly during (if the exercise lasts more than 1 hour) and after physical exercise to avoid the risk of hypoglycemia.
In type 2 diabetes, hypoglycemia can occur in patients taking secretagogue drugs (see).
Carry out the physical activity, possibly in company, in a cool and not too humid environment, in suitable shoes and sports clothes. Furthermore, it is advisable to communicate your health condition to the persons accompanying you and/or your personal trainer so that others are aware of your condition and work safely.
• Maintain adequate hydration.
EXERCISE AND TYPE 1 DIABETES
All levels of exercise, including competitive sports, can be performed by people with type 1 diabetes who have no complications and have good glycemic compensation.
Self-monitoring of blood sugar levels before, during and after exercise is important
Episodes of hypoglycemia can occur during, immediately after exercise, or many hours after exercise. This requires adequate knowledge on the part of the patient of both metabolic and hormonal responses to exercise and a special capacity for self-control.
It is necessary to start practicing slow and regular physical activity and learn to personalize training, insulin and carbohydrate intake, so that you can “know” each other better and thus be able to manage your favorite physical activity well.
GENERAL CONCEPTS FOR BEGINNING
METABOLIC CONTROL BEFORE EXERCISE.
a) It is advisable to perform physical activity at least 3-4 hours after a meal, so that you do not perform the activity when the level of insulin in the blood is too high.
b) Insulin from the meal that precedes the activity must possibly be injected into the abdomen (an injection into the shoulder or thigh will cause accelerated absorption during movement with the subsequent risk of hypoglycemia) and be adequate for the exercised activity.