The Conference of the Parties represents the supreme body of the Climate Framework Convention (result of ECO-92), which brings together several countries to participate annually in environmental conferences. The purpose of the Framework Convention is to debate, among the members of the Conference of the Parties, issues such as global warming, proposing goals that help to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Since its ratification in 1994, there have been several Conferences of the Parties.
The first, known as COP-1, took place in 1995 in Berlin; the second, known as COP-2, took place in Geneva in 1996; the third, COP-3, was held in 1997 in Kyoto.Objectives: propose targets and alternatives to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and strengthen the commitment of all countries to contain the increase in global temperatures.
Results: the main result of COP-3 was the Kyoto Protocol, which complements the Framework Convention, proposing goals to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases. This protocol came into force in 2005 and was ratified by 55 countries, whose gas emissions reached 55%. The Kyoto Protocol gave these countries strict commitments related to global warming. The United States, one of the biggest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world, was one of the countries that stayed out of this treaty, claiming that the protocol would be harmful to the country’s economic growth.
Rio+10, also known as the World Conference on Sustainable Development or Johannesburg Summit, was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2002. It brought together 189 countries and several international organizations.
Objectives: to debate environmental conservation and discuss social problems, such as hunger and poverty; achieve the goals established in Agenda 21, elaborated during ECO-92.
Results: the Johannesburg Declaration was one of the results of Rio+10. This document presented world order problems, such as misery and hunger, which are linked to globalization. He also pointed out that countries should strive to achieve sustainable development. The main points of this declaration are: improvement of basic sanitation for the population, protection of biodiversity, promotion of access to drinking water, fight against hunger, drug trafficking and organized crime. Another result was the commitment of countries to halve, by 2015, the number of people without access to safe drinking water.
River + 20
Rio +20, also known as the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, was held in Brazil, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, in 2012. Organized by the UN, it brought together 193 member countries and had the greatest media coverage related to a environmental event in history.
Objectives: to debate issues addressed in previous conferences and reflect on the proposals and actions carried out by States since ECO-92, pointing out those that guide sustainable development. The main objective converges to the efforts and commitment of countries to sustainability. From that conference, the following question arose: “What future do we want?”.
Results: elaboration of the document known as “The future we want”, which points out some proposals for the future, such as eradicating poverty, protecting natural resources, changing consumption modes, promoting sustainable growth, reducing inequalities, among others. . This document reinforced the commitments related to sustainable development made at past conferences. Another result was the creation of Sustainable Development Goals, based on Agenda 21, whose objective is to adapt the reality of the countries in order to promote sustainability, a goal that will only be possible with the eradication of poverty.
The term “sustainable development” came to light in 1987, when the report known as Our Common Future was prepared by the World Commission on the Environment. This report aimed to point out the changes necessary for the exploitation of natural resources to have minimal negative effects on the environment. This goal was established with the aim of guaranteeing supplies for future generations.
Sustainable development means developing without harming or compromising future generations. For this to be possible, it is necessary that the exploitation of natural resources be done in a rational way. In addition, it is essential that these resources are replenished in nature as they are withdrawn.
Another necessary factor for the impacts on nature to be minimal is the change in society’s consumption pattern, which favors the devastation of natural resources, aiming only at profit. It is essential, therefore, that the development of the economy is linked to the preservation of the environment.